Fault-tolerant Multi-hop LEACH Protocol







STIC Laboratory, Faculty of Technology

University of Tlemcen Tlemcen, Algeria Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.


STIC Laboratory, Faculty of Technology

University of Tlemcen Tlemcen, Algeria Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.





Abstract—The wireless communication system is in continuous growth and revolution. The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the domain of actuality that provides a bridge between the digital world and the physical world and offers a rich, multi-disciplinary area of research. The WSN suffer from some limitations that affect the reliability of the network. In this paper, we address the reliability and fault tolerance   issue by designing an enhanced fault tolerant mechanism for LEACH which is an energy-efficient hierarchical-based  routing  protocol  called  FM-LEACH,  our prime focus was on the analysis of LEACH based upon certain parameters like energy consumption, reliability of data delivery, and  network lifetime  and  then  we  apply  a  multi-hop  routing scheme between cluster heads of the network based on RSSI technique to forward data aggregated towards base station and create a backup multi-hop path  between cluster heads to ensure the reliability of data delivery.


 Keywords-component; WSN, Leach protocol, Fault-tolerance, multihop  scheme.





Recent improvements [1] in affordable and efficient integrated electronic devices have a considerable impact on advancing the state of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which constitute a platform of a broad range of applications related to national security, surveillance, military, health care, environmental monitoring, and recently industrial controls.

  A WSN is a collection of a large number of wireless nodes deployed to measure and report certain parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity, etc. Sensor nodes often transmit via a wireless medium in which the power required to send data is proportional to the square of the distance between the source and the destination. This problem is compounded by the fact that the base station can be far removed from any given node. In many situations, it is likely that most nodes will not be able to have a direct connection with the base station. In order to address these issues, a multi-hop distributed routing

protocol needs to be implemented to relay the information in a quick and power efficient manner.

The   design  of   routing  protocols  for   WSNs  must consider the power and resource limitations of the network nodes, the time-varying quality of the wireless Channel and the possibility for packet loss and delay. To address these design requirements, several routing strategies for WSNs have been proposed. One class of routing protocol [2] adopts a flat

network architecture in which all nodes are considered peers.

The second class of routing protocols imposes a structure on the network to achieve energy efficiency, stability, and scalability. The third  class  uses a  data-centric approach to disseminate interest within the network. The approach uses attribute-based naming,  whereby a  source  node  queries  an attribute for the phenomenon rather than an individual sensor node.  A  fourth class  of  routing protocols uses  location to address a  sensor node. Location-based routing is  useful  in applications where the position of the node within the geographical coverage of the network is relevant to the query issued by the source node.

The use of clusters for transmitting data to the base station leverages the advantages of small transmit distances for most nodes, requiring only a few nodes to transmit far distances to the base station. Each cluster has a representing node called cluster head that aggregates all data received from its members of cluster to send it to the destination node. Data aggregation is an efficient mechanism as it not only reduces the energy consumption of packet transmission but also lowers the traffic load and therefore reduces the contentions and collisions.

Since the sensor nodes are prone to failure [3], fault tolerance should be seriously considered in many sensor network applications to keep functioning network without any interruption in the presence of faults.

The rest of the paper discusses LEACH protocol and we have presented some protocols that extend LEACH then, we

have described the proposed work and explain the different

steps that we have added to the LEACH protocol.



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